The Use of Student Fixed Effects in Explaining Grade Outcomes: Estimating Revealed Grit

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Christopher D Azevedo John R Crooker


We develop a method of estimating an empirical measure of student grit, which we call ’revealed grit,’ that does not depend on self-reported data as with other measures in the literature. Fixed effects regression methods are used to model student letter grade in a college course as a function of the student’s demonstrated cognitive performance, sociodemographic variables, academic rank, relative high school performance, subject matter of the college course, instructor, advisor, and an individual student effect, which we interpret as an empirical measure of grit. We also demonstrate that revealed grit can be predicted using secondary education data.

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