Scorecasting: Framing Effects in a Finitely Repeated 2x2 Zero-Sum Game

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Russell W Louks Thomas E Merz Heather Sorcha


This study reports results from a laboratory experiment that examined choices of university students playing a finitely repeated 2x2 simultaneous zero-sum game. The stage game is a conventional representation of choices in sports such as soccer (penalty kicker vs. goalkeeper) and tennis (server vs. receiver). In each treatment, a real-time scoreboard displayed the history of players' choices and which player won the round. We examined whether the frequencies of choices by university students were dependent on whether scoring was visually cast as a gain (positive frame) or a loss (negative frame). Results aligned with the game-theoretic prediction of no significant differences in choices due to framing. (C72, C73, C92)

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